"THE PARTY-Red Line"

"THE PARTY-Red Line": Mao Zedong' biography and his history

Mao Zedong -- A Great Man in China History

Mao Zedong, also well known as Chairman Mao, is a great man in human history. His dramatic personal life, his military talent, his artist poems, his political skill, his famous third world classification theory and his dictator's leading style in his later years have influenced generations of people. In order to fully understand the modern history of China, it is indispensable to study the father of the People's Republic of China --Mao's history. The following network resource list attempted to provide a tool for historic scholars, Asian study students and researchers. The list also tried to provide a sketch of Mao's life for people who are interested in and know a little bit of China, Mao Zedong and W.W.II, etc.. The network resource list included most of the information found in the internet about his personal life, his thought and theories, his poems and publications, his friends and enemies, the historic event he initiated and participated, his pictures and voices etc.. The network resource list also presented the summaries of the resources, and further information search sites as well. Some of links which the resources list followed are written in Chinese GB format, in order to read them, an installation of Chinese web viewer software is required.

Mao Zedong was born on the December 26, 1893, and died on the September 9, 1976 at the age of 83. He was the head of the Chinese Communist Party for forty-one years since the historic ZhunYi meeting (1935) during the Long March. He built the Red Army (Late, referred to the People's Liberation Army), took part in the anti-Japanese War and the civil war in China and finally chased the Nationalists to Taiwan and established the People's Republic of China. He was one of most influential people in the modern China history. The resources list is divided to seven parts, namely, Mao's personal life, Mao's theory and the publication, the major events Mao participated, the end of the Era of Mao Zedong and the miscellaneous, multimedia including the historic voice and the pictures, etc.. Finally, the future possible search sites are also listed for the references.

Part I: Mao Zedong's Personal Life

Mao Zedong's Important Dates

  • Date of Birth
  • Date of Death
    This site provided a general information about the historical events happening date. Besides listing the event itself, the site contained very limited information particularly about Mao Zedong...

    Hunan, Mao Zedong's Birth Place
    There is a picture and the description about the Hunan province of China - Mao Zedong's birthplace found in this site. The general description about Mao's hometown, the school Mao went to, the history and the geographical location related to Mao's early life in this site is in good accuracy. Although, this site can be implemented as more colorful and rich information resource, the site presently is not contained a lot of information about Mao Zedong's early activities...


    Mao Zedong's Private life
    This site provided a Chinese version of the story about Mao's private life. The story was written by late Dr. Li, Zhishui, Mao's private physician for twenty-two years and published by Random House of USA. The story described many details about the last twenty-two years of Mao's private life, Mao's living style, Mao's habits, Mao's viewpoints to his colleagues and Mao's thought when he initiated the major events. Many of Mao activities are described in this book. Although, some of the details recorded in this book might not be one hundred percent accurate due to the lack of the physical evidence and were denied by some other Mao's bodyguards, this resource certainly can serve as a good reference retrieval source...


    Mao Zedong' Biography
    Mao Zedong's biography is found in this site. The biography recorded almost every detail about Mao's grownup history, Mao' early student life, the creation of the communist party, the three time marriages, Mao's military theories and his major publications. Mao's self-reliance and rural guerrilla strategies proved by the rapid growth and eventually in control of the entire Chinese mainland. The biography also described the Mao's later years activities, such as 1950s Hundreds Flowers movements, Great Leap Forward, Culture Revolution, etc.. The biography talked a little bit about Mao's fourth wife Jiang Qing. The biography is well written and reasonable accurate with rich information about the time and events in Mao's whole life...


    Part II: Mao Zedong's Theory and Publications

    Maoism Books
    This site contained a list of Revolution Books from quotations from Chairman Mao, books written by Mao Zedong and Lenin to the books about revolutionary communist party etc. The subject is about Maoism and communism. The list of the books included the information of the authors, the publishers, the languages and the prices. Although this site only listed very limited works about and written by Mao Zedong, it still gave the users some of the most famous and important works of Maoism and Communism...


    Mao Zedong's Thought Re-thought
    This site provides a research article about Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought rethought. It discussed the goal of Mao Zedong Thought that is the Class Struggle. He subordinated economic policy to the dictated of massive class struggle. And his ignorance of economics coursed the economic collapse in China. During the post-Mao period, Deng Xiaoping reemphasized the issue of economic modernization and that became the basis of Deng Xiaoping's pragmatic reform policies. The article described the difference in political style between Mao and Deng; the difference of the role of Ideology, the Ideology and Socialist Man, the Ideology and Social Change in Mao's time and Deng's time. The article is devoted to the original facts of Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping's approach. The goal is clear and the article is well organized. It also included a reference part...


    Mao Zedong's Poem
    Besides a great leader of China, Mao Zedong is also a well-known Chinese Classic Poem writer. In this Chinese site, it included about forty most famous classic poems written by Mao Zedong with a introduction and evaluation of those poems as well. At the end of each poem, there is a part of brief notes and explanations. All the poems in this site were input in Chinese, it needed a special software such as UNIONWAY to read it. This site is useful for those who love Chinese Classic Poem and Mao Zedong's poems as well...


    The Women in Mao Zedong's Poems
    There are several Mao's poems which are specially devoted to Mao's lovers and female comrades. The Chinese article found in this site introduced several Mao's well known poems which devoted to Mao's first wife, Yang Kaihui such as "Buttefly Loves the Flower" and "Congradulate to the Groom". The article also introduced the Mao's another poem with the famous female author Ding Ling "The Angels in the RiverSide". The historic background, the inter-personal relationship and the feedback from the Mao's colleagues and Mao's current wife. This articles also have some degree coverage. However, this site didn't cover the Mao's other poems devoted to Mao's last wife, Jiang Qing, and this article has certain limitation in giving the stereo image to reader...

    --- http://b.stat.purdue.edu:1280/httpd_1.3/spool/xys9412/xys9412_page_30.html

    Part III: The Historic Events He Initiated and Participated

    This site provides the history of China dates back some 3,300 years. It gave a brief Chinese Chronology, dynasties and dynastic cycle and presents the history of most of 48 dynasties. This site especially detailed the history of the Republic of China (1911-1949) and the People's Republic of China (1949-). In the part of PR China, it listed all the historical events in the period of 1949-1988, such as: the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Transition to Socialism, the Great Leap Forward, the Readjustment and Recovery, etc.. It records how Mao, Zedong initiated and participated these events. The information in this site was rich, broad and accurate. It devoted to the facts of the history and was full of useful and professional knowledge...

    Establishing The People's Republic of China (1949)
    This part talked about the founding of the People's Republic of China, the China entering the Korean War, the Land Reform, the Three Anti and Five Anti Movements, etc...


    Transition To Socialism (1953-1957)
    This part talked about the Transition to Socialism, the First Five-Year Plan, the centralization of party, the purge of Gao Gang and Rao Shushi, the Anti-Rightist Campaign, and the Double Hundred Campaign...


    Great Leap Forward (1958-1960)
    In this section, it talked about the cause of the Great Leap Forward, the People's Communes, the Second Five-Year Plan, and also describes the party conference at Lushan in 1959, the Sino-Soviet dispute of the late 1950s...


    Readjustment And Recovery (1961-1965)
    Here it presented the moderate leadership under Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun, Peng Zhen and others; the series of corrective measures initiated by them such as the reorganization of the commune system, etc; the economic recovery...


    Cultural Revolution Decade (1966-1976)

  • Militant Phase (1966-1968)
  • Ninth National Party Congress To The Demise Of Lin, Biao (1969-1971)
    This section discribed the Cultural Revolution, the power struggle in the govenment and the party, the social background and the situation of Mao's power loss before the Cultural Revolution in detail, etc.. It presented the cause of the Cultural Revolution and describes how Mao Zedong initiated and participated the movement. It gave all the historical facts of the Cultural Revolution in two main parts: the Militant Phase and the Ninth National Party Congress to the Demise of Lin Baio...

    Part IV: The End of Mao Zedong's Era

    End Of The Era Of Mao Zedong (1972-1976)

    The essay found in this site studied the role of Deng Xiaoping, who was reinstated as a vice premier in April 1973. The year 1976 saw the deaths of the three most senior officials in the CCP and the state apparatus: Zhou Enlai in January, Zhu De(then chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and de jure head of state) in July, and Mao Zedong in September. Deng Xiaoping, the logical successor as premier, received a temporary setback after Zhou's death, when radicals launched a major counterassault against him. The radical clique most closely associated with Mao and the Cultural Revolution became vulnerable after Mao died, as Deng had been after Zhou Enlai's demise. In October, less than a month after Mao's death, Jiang Qing and her three principal associates--denounced as the Gang of Four were arrested with the assistance of two senior Political Bureau members, Minister of National Defense Ye Jianying and Wang Dongxing, commander of the CCP's elite bodyguard. Within days it was formally announced that Hua Guofeng had assumed the positions of party chairman, chairman of the party's Central Military Commission, and premier. Then, after about one year, Deng Xiaoping became the chief of the party and made the political and the enconomic reform of China...


    Part V: The Sites With Stories Related To Mao Zedong

    Begging With Mao Zedong
    The Chinese article found in this site described an earlier Mao's activities in the establishing of the Hunan branch of the Chinese communist party. In order to travel to sites and persuade his comrades, he even had to beg for food. This article also describes many less known facts and events such as Mao's brother in law was beheaded by the Nationalist...


    Death of Mao Zedong
    The Chinese article found in this site described last few days in Mao's life. Mao clearly thought what would happen about his power, his wife, his communist ideas after he died. However, nobody really knew what his true feeling about his family, his defeated enemy was. This article tried to describe some of the facts about Mao's behaviors before his death. It may not be true facts, but it provided a different view angle..


    Guard on Mao Zedong
    Mao's body guard, Mr. Li Yingqiao wrote this Chinese story and is found in this site. In this story, Li talked a lot about Mao's habits, Mao's personal feeling...


    Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai
    The relationship between Mao and his comrade Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai. The friendship, and fighting were described in this Chinese article...


    The Suicide Report of Mao Zedong's Fourth Wife Jiang Qing
    The Chinese report describes how Mao Zedong's fourth wife Jiang Qing suicided. Although it is short, it contained a lot of information and details which you must know...


    The Public Trial of Gang of Four

    The article in this Chinese site described the process of the trial of Jiang Qing (Mao's fourth wife), Zhang Chuenqiao, Yao Wenyuan and Wang Hongwen who are known as Gang of Four. It devoted to the historical facts, and had some inside details which we have never known before...


    The Last Days of Lin Biao
    The Mao's vice chairman, Marshall Lin Biao was dead mysteriously about a quarter century ago. For a long time, Lin's death was covered by the communist party. The Chinese article found in this sites made a hypothesis about Lin's mysterious death and tried to investigate the relationship between Lin and Mao, and the role of Zhou Enlai played in the whole events. The story is very interesting and provided a certain historic background about Lin's death. It can serve a reference source for the researchers in studying the Chinese Cultural Revolution...


    Part VI: The Multimedia Sites Related to Mao Zedong

    Historical Pictures
    There are several historical pictures of Mao Zedong, Mao's wife, comrades and enemy found in these sites. The pictures were taken in different era of Mao's life. They are the limited ones you can find in the world wide web...

  • Picture 1
    This is the standard picture of Mao Zedong. It is the one hanging on Tian AnMen Gate Tower. It was probably taken in the 1950s...

  • Picture 2
    These two pictures were taken in different time, one in 1930s by American journalist Edgar Snow, worn a red star hat, another one was taken probably in 1940s...

  • Picture 3
    This is one of the most popular pictures of Ma Zedong during the Cultural Revolution. Whenever I see the picture, I cannot help thinking of the song named "Sail Depends the Captain"...

  • Picture 4
    This picture was taken during the period of Culture Revolution on the Tian AnMen Gate Tower. The left rear is Marshall Lin Biao. At the time of the picture taken, Lin Biao was officially voted in the Ninth National CCP Conference as Mao's succcessor...

  • Picture 5
    This picture propably was taken during the third civil war (1946-1949)...

  • Picture 6
    This picture was taken during the period of against the Japanese war with Mao's comrades: general Zhu De, Ye Jianying and Liu Bochen...

  • Picture 7
    This is the picture of Mao's fourth wife Jiang Qing. There is a short Jiang Qing's biography found in this site as well. The biography recorded all Jiang's important date and activities...

  • picture 8
    This is the picture of Mao's comrade, Premier Zhou Enlai's statue on the campus of NanKai University, China. Zhou went into NanKai university in his earlier years...

  • picture 9
    This is the picture of Deng Xiaoping, Mao's supporter before the cultural revolution. After Mao died, it is him to initiate China's political and economic reforms. The picture was taken in earlier 1990s...

  • picture 10
    This is the picture of Mr. Chiang Kai-shek, the head of the Chinese Nationalists, Mao' life long enemy...

    Mao Zedong's Historical Voice
    From this site, you can hear the historical voices of Mao Zedong (Chairman Mao), Zhou Enlai (Premier Zhou), Deng Xiaoping and Zhu De. To hear these digitized voices, sound devices and the supporting software are needed...


    The Songs in the Praise of Mao Zedong
    In this site, it archived about 15 songs in the digital format related to the praise of Mao Zedong and the communist party such as Golden Sun In Beijing, Kindness of Mao Zedong, Golden Sun Rises, Ode to ShaoShan, Star Moon Together, etc.. Those are the songs very popular in 1960s and 1970s, and almost everybody in China could sing them at that time. Now, the younger generation of Chinese review these songs as not only the historical music but also the master music pieces...


    Part VII: Future Search Sites and Possible Resources Origins:

    There are numerious posting and collections in related Mao Zedong found in these sites from the time to time. Some of the posts in the newsgroups are stories. They are certainly can be served as the information resources. However, due to the freedom of the speech, these posted messages might not be very accurated in the event time, nature, involved people, etc.. It needs to be justified before it can be used for the references.

    Newsgroup ALT.CHINESE.TEXT
    Newsgroup CHINESE.FLAME
    Newsgroup CHINESE.REC.MISC
    Asia Resources Library
    UW-Madison Southeast Asian Resource
    East Asian Collections
    ANU-Online Chinese Libraries
    East Asia Library at UC Berkeley
    China News
    China News Digest

    This resource lists was created by F. Zhang < f-zhang@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu> as a term project for LIS450 class.

    Last update: December 14, 1995.